Biolog Phenotype MicroArray
     Serious Technology for Serious Microbiology November 2012

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  • Role of membrane lipids in adaptation and resistance studied using Phenotype MicroArrays

    Phenotype MicroArray
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    In 2009, after discovery of alanyl-phosphatidyl glycerol (A-PG) synthase in P. aeruginosa, Phenotype MicroArraysTM were used to discover that A-PG mediates not only adaptation to low pH, but also resistance to chromium chloride, protamine sulphate, sodium lactate, and cefusoldin. More recently, these studies have been expanded to understand the role of lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidyl choline.
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    Adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to various conditions includes tRNA-dependent formation of alanyl-phosphatidylglycerol
    The authors report the identification of alanyl-phosphatidyl glycerol (A-PG) Synthase in P. aeruginosa and its role in adaptation to low pH. Phenotype MicroArraysTM were used to discover additional phenotypes of the A-PG deficient mutants including resistance to chromium chloride, protamine sulphate, sodium lactate, and cefusoldin.

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    Resistance Phenotypes Mediated by Aminoacyl-Phosphatidylglycerol Synthases
    Moser and colleagues recently extended their work by studying A-PG substitution. Relative PM antibiotic susceptibility patterns and other growth experiments led them to conclude that "an exclusive charge repulsion mechanism does not explain the attenuated antimicrobial susceptibility due to PG modification". Bioinformatic analysis of the specificity of nine orthologs suggested a diverse evolutionary origin of A-PG and L-PG synthases.

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    Absence of Membrane Phosphatidylcholine Does Not Affect Virulence and Stress Tolerance Phenotypes in the Opportunistic Pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Phenotype MicroArrays were used to look for phenotypes in a mutant that is unable to synthesize phosphatidyl choline. No phenotypes or defects in a mouse infection model were found. Clinical isolates maintain the ability to synthesize PC through evolution, suggesting a potentially important yet undefined role.

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    Phenotype MicroArray Technology
    Biolog's Phentoype MicroArray technology enables researchers to evaluate nearly 2000 phenotypes of a microbial cell in a single experiment. This integrated system of cellular assays, instrumentation and bioinformatics software provides cellular knowledge that complements molecular information, helping you interpret and find the relevant aspects in massive amounts of gene expression or proteomics data. Through comprehensive and precise quantitation of phenotypes, researchers are able to obtain an unbiased perspective of the effect on cells of genetic differences, environmental change, exposure to chemicals or drugs, and more.